Association of Freedom of Thought and Expression

“Oppression with a Taste of Emergency” Report on Freedom of Expression in 2018

Digital Rights… Oppression in the virtual space


AFTE documented 20 incidents during which 20 individuals were punished by prison or expulsion from work because of their expression of their views on social media,

whether in writing or by posting videos throughout 2018. 17 of them have been subjected to preventive detention, some have been releases and others are still in prison until the time of writing this report. Courts have issued prison sentences against two women in two different cases and recently an employee of the TV and radio union has been fired from his work. High state security prosecution came on top of the list of violators (12 violations)


“Abuse of social media and dissemination of false news”


These two charges led to the arrest of several political activists in various cases that have in common similar charges by the High State Security Prosecution for the defendants to punish them for expressing their views through social media. This began with the first quarter of the year, and did not stop until the fourth quarter, where new defendants were arrested from their homes and others from their workplaces.

On October 14, 2018, a force of four policemen arrested dentist Walid Shawqi from his clinic in the neighborhood of Sayeda Zeinab. A few days later, on October 18, Ayman Abdel-Moati was arrested from his workplace at the Al-Maraya publishing house in the center of Cairo. Both Shawqi and Abdulmuti were locked up in the case no. 621 for the same charges as a long list of defendants, including political activist Shadi al-Ghazali Harb, video blogger Shadi Abu Zeid, April 6 member Sherif al-Roubi and others still in preventive custody.

Security forces arrested a number of political activists on charges of inciting demonstrations through their accounts on the social media. The prosecution decided to imprison the writer Ibrahim al-Husseini in the investigation of Shubra al-Khayma case No. 15216 of 2018, after his home was raided and searched by state security forces, before he was arrested in the early hours of 9 December 2018.[30]

El Husseini was not the only one to be punished for allegedly “inciting” demonstrations which did not take place. One day after his arrest security forces arrested Alexandrian lawyer Mohamed Ramadan from the street. He was presented to the prosecution and accused of “possession of 5 yellow jackets to call for demonstrations against the ruling regime mirroring the demonstrations in France, joining a terrorist organization and disseminating its ideas, dissemination of false news and using social media to propagate the ideas of the terrorist group”, in Montaza I prosecution case no. 16576/2018. Ramadan had been sentenced in absentia to 10 years and house arrest for 5 years as well as prohibition of using the internet for 5 years, back in April 2017.


Weal Abbas… Arrested for internet activity


“I am being arrested” was the last thing written by journalist and blogger Weal Abbas on his personal Facebook account in the early hours of 23rd of May 2018.

The following day he was accused by the prosecution of joining a terrorist group in achieving its objectives, publishing false news, misuse of social media, in state security case no. 441/2018. It is the same case that involves other activists and journalists, including journalist Adel Sabry, editor in chief of Masr Elarabeya website and journalist Hassan Elbanna and others.

Wael Abbas is a journalist, blogger and activist with many awards, including the Knight Award from the International Center for Journalists in Washington in 2007 and the Helman Hamt Award for Human Rights from Human Rights Watch in 2008. Abbas began the “Egyptian Awareness” blog in 2004, posting pictures and videos of the torture of citizens in places of detention in the Mubarak era. The blog was famous in 2006 when Abbas published videos of the torture of a citizen in the Bulaq position, which was known as the “torture of Imad al-Kabir”, which sentenced the torturers to 3 years’ imprisonment to be released after serving three quarters of their term.

On the morning of the 23rd day, a number of security forces stormed the house of Wael Abbas while he and his mother were in the house. They searched the house and took him blindfolded to security vehicles. The prosecution did not show either a search or arrest warrant, according to a family member[31]. During his presentation to the prosecution, Abbas was confronted with a number of evidences obtained by the security forces from the house, including “a number of mobile phones, a number of cameras, two laptops, a music player, two books, both written by Abbas. The prosecution asked him about the content of the books, his social origins, orientations and political positions, especially about the events of 25 January and 30 June, according to the AFTE lawyer who attended the investigation with Abbas.

Abbas is suffering from heart problems and the organization’s lawyer has submitted a number of requests to transfer Abbas to the prison hospital or an outside hospital, even at the expense of his own family. This continued for more than seven hearings in front of the prosecution. “The prison administration has refused to carry out the prosecution’s decision for a long time, but Abbas has recently been examined by a prison doctor, although a number of medical examinations remain to be done, according to a family member.

On the 1st of December the Giza criminal court decided to release Abbas with precautionary measures pending the case. He has to visit the police station of his district twice weekly for 45 days. The following day the prosecution contested the appeal decision. On the 3rd of December the Giza criminal court confirmed the release and rejected the appeal by the prosecution.

On June 20, 2018, the Court of Administrative Justice sentenced Ali Hassanein Abu Hamaila to dismissal from his job at the Radio and Television Union as the director of foreign registrations at the Nile Drama Channel, accusing him of breaking the requirements of the public office by writing statements on his personal Facebook page. Prosecutors have charged the defendant in case No. 176/58J with charges of conduct that does not conform to due respect for the job, violation of the rules, instructions and provisions of the law, and out of duty activity by writing and publishing insulting and inappropriate statements against the President of the Republic on his personal page on social media, commenting on the border demarcation agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and Egypt’s concession of the islands of Tiran and Sanafir. Ali Abu Humaila also filed an appeal before the Administrative Court against the decision to transfer him from his post, following an investigation into the Radio and Television Union because of his publications on Facebook.[32]

Egyptian authorities continued their blocking of websites, which began in May 2017. AFTE documented the blocking of 44 websites, including press sites, technical news sites and sites that are meant to bypass the block.

On February 3, users in Egypt found difficulty in accessing a large number of websites via mobile phones. This was the result of the Egyptian government’s blocking of AMP, with up to 25 million websites[33]. The government decided to withhold service when several blocked sites resorted to it to bypass the block. Later the ban was lifted on the service, while the sites that tried to use it remained blocked.

Authorities blocked some sites after their publishing certain news not favored by the state. El Khalig Algadid was blocked after publishing on 17 January 2018 that “El Sisi removed head of general intelligence after the leak scandals”. The Lebanese Akhbar site was also blocked on the same day after publishing that “El Sisi removes head of intelligence: failure in the Palestinian and media portfolio”.

Other sites were blocked shortly after their launch such as Elkatib, which was blocked less than 9 hours after its launch on 24 June 2018, as well as Geem that was blocked one month after its launch on the 29th of July 2018.

On the other hand, technical reports revealed the Egyptian government’s use of the Pegasus spy software produced by the Israeli company NSO, and the software is working to deceive the target person to click on a malicious and dedicated link, which once pressed, tries to exploit a series of unknown gaps “zero-day” to penetrate the digital protection features on the phone and download “Pegasus” without the user’s knowledge or permission. Once Pegasus is loaded on the phone, it starts dialing C&C to receive and execute operator commands, and sends the data of the operator, including private information, passwords, contacts, calendar, text messages, and direct voice calls from Mobile Messaging applications. The operator can even operate the phone camera and microphone to capture and record activity in the surroundings of the phone.

We also monitored the use of the SandvinePacketLogic device, where middle boxes were found to use Deep Packet Inspection technology on one of the Egyptian telecommunications networks. These devices have been used to redirect many users of Internet service providers to digital currency advertisements and scripts.

The Supreme Council for Media Regulation, the government body responsible for organizing the media sector in Egypt, formed a committee called “Follow-up Committee for Social Networking Sites”, a committee responsible for the daily follow-up of social networking pages to reveal trends among the various social groups, different social classes and the daily monitoring of changes and developments that occur in the prevailing ideas on those pages.



Academic Freedom… Egyptian Universities deprived of independence


A number of faculty members of Egyptian universities have been exposed to violations related to freedom of expression – academic freedom and the independence of the university in particular – in at least four cases in the universities of Cairo, Helwan, Damanhour and Suez.

In Suez, the university president issued a decision to expel[34] Dr. Mona Prince, a teacher in the Department of English Language Faculty of Arts from her job while retaining the pension and reward, according to a decision of the Disciplinary Board authorized to investigate Prince and issued on 13 May 2018.

The university administration had referred Prince to administrative investigation and suspended her job until the investigations were completed on April 5, 2017. The university said in a statement that Prince had “posted clips and pictures on her account on social networking sites (video), noncompliance with the curriculum of the faculty of education, appearing in several television programs without the permission of the university, and making statements contrary to the traditions and values of university and public order and ethics and morality, which is contrary to the role of a university professor, and finally delay in the delivery of her tasks to the control department.

Thus, in addition to its involvement in the private life of the professor, the university added new charges related to her academic work. Maher Mesbah, the former president of Suez University, tried to divert attention from the university’s interference in private life by saying that Mona El-Prince was referred to the investigation before the video was published on her personal account, against the background of professional abuses related to her lack of abidance with the agreed lecture frames and other problems related to correction of exam papers and delivering their results. The Ministry of Higher Education issued a statement stating that “the personal freedom of faculty members is protected by the Constitution and the law, but it is not at the expense of the norms and ethics of the university.”[35]

Dr. Mona Elprince appealed the decision of her suspension from university in front of the high administrative court.

At the University of Damanhour, the administrative investigation with Dr. Ahmed Rashwan, a teacher of modern and contemporary history at the Faculty of Education, University of Damanhour, ended with directing of blame, according to the AFTE lawyer, Mohab Said. The president of the University of Damanhour, Dr. Saleh Obeid, referred Dr. Rashwan to investigation against the background of the latter’s words and descriptions of Sheikh Sharaoui and Amr Khaled, which some saw as insulting “the greatest evildoers in the history of modern Egypt,” in his book (Studies in the history of contemporary Arabs) which he teaches to third years’ students in the History Department.

The investigation took place on Wednesday, 2nd of May 2018 by the deputy dean of the faculty of law, Tanta university and the legal consultant to the president of Damanhour university, Dr. Ashraf Weeha. The investigator decided to suspend Dr. Rashwa from work for three months. The dean of the faculty decided that Dr. Rashwan is not to enter the university until the end of the investigation[36]. On the 2nd of May the department council decided to ban him from participating in this year’s exams[37].

In view of the wide attacks that the faculty member experienced as a result of his book, he withdrew his opinions and said “I greatly respect Sheikh Al-Shaarawi and all the religions of Islam, Christianity, Judaism and all the symbols of religions”. He added “The chapter has basically not been studied at all, I do not know why the issue was raised, and I was surprised by a great opposition and I have cancelled the chapter as soon as I realized it could be a problem.”[38]

In Cairo University, the university administration was reluctant to renew the third academic year leave for doctoral researcher Kholoud Saber, who is currently studying at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, where she linked the renewal of the leave with the opening of a file in the Department of Missions at the Ministry of Higher Education.

Saber had received a letter from the university stating the approval of the Council in its meeting held on 27 February 2018 to renew the leave provided that the researcher submitted papers to the missions. The researcher received another letter from the university administration requesting the management of the missions to submit a request to open a file with the administration, noting that it should submit all the documents required to open the file, including security approvals until the renewal of leave.

The researcher submitted all the required papers to open a file in the management of missions, but she refused to submit security approval forms. She said in a letter addressed to the university administration, “after reference to the law of the organization of universities No. 49 of 1972 I did not find anything referring to the need for approval by any security authorities as a condition to renew the academic leave for members of associates or faculty members. I believe in the principle of independence of universities, which recognizes the right of the university in managing its affairs without any outside party – especially non-academic – having the right to intervene in university affairs, announced my reluctance to submit a questionnaire to the opinion of the security authorities, especially after informing me orally that the security authorities had informed the university before that they objected to my travels without giving any reasons. I am completely willing to submit any papers or documents specific to my position required by the university or the Faculty of Arts, or the management of missions.

The Administrative Court is still considering the case No. 3163 for the year 63 judicial filed by the researcher against Cairo University on the renewal of study leave. The court has asked the researcher to submit papers to the missions in the hearing of 10 September 2018, according to AFTE lawyer, Mohab Said. The court will continue to hear the case at the January 8 hearing.


Students also on terrorism lists


On the twenty-second of February of this year, the Egyptian Chronicle published an appendix to the Official Gazette with the decision of the Criminal Court of Cairo, Section 25 of the Criminal Proceedings of South Cairo, in the case of the Public Prosecution No. 440 of 2018, upon decree No. 1 of 2018, to include the head of Masr Alqaweya party, Dr. Abdel Moneim Abul Fotouh and 15 others on terrorism lists.

It appears at first glance that this action comes within the security campaign against the party during that period, which consisted of the arrest of the president of the party and his deputy, Muhammad al-Qassas, and a number of close associates of the party’s president. However, the court decision included also 4 graduates who are defined on the list of accusations by their former student union positions, including former president of the Tanta university student union (the minister of higher education later cancelled the student elections and appointed replacements), his deputy, Moaza Sharkawy, former president of Sohag University Students Union, Adham Kadri. The decision also included the name of the secretary of Masr Elqaweyaa student group, Amr Khattab, faculty of engineering, Ain Shams university.

The ruling accused the head of the party of recruiting youth elements, especially university students, to carry out terrorist plots. The ruling added that Abu Al-Fotouh began to form groups under the name of the “strong students of Egypt” and choose who would fit him after preparing the armed wing of the organization in order to implement a terrorist scheme. Among them were Adham Kadri, Amr al-Hilu, and Mu’adh al-Sharqawi, as well as the secretary of Egypt’s strong student movement, Amr Khattab. Among the charges against those mentioned are to work to disrupt the provisions of the constitution and laws, and to prevent state institutions and public authorities from carrying out their responsibilities, attacking them, sabotaging them and undermining them, and concluding with the destruction of the state itself and spreading chaos and terror through acts of violence, vandalism, according to the court.

Subsequent to the ruling the above mentioned would be banned from travel and their funds seized.

It seems strange that the names of these students are listed with their former elected positions in the university, despite the graduation of two of them, which confirms that the investigations relied upon by the judgment of the Criminal Court are very inaccurate and that they were used for the purpose of punishment for their activity during their tenure.

Despite the fact that their names are included in the lists of terrorism, none of the students was arrested for several months after the publication of the ruling in the official gazette, except for the vice president of the Tanta University Student Union, the graduate of the Faculty of Arts, Moaz al-Sharqawi. He was arrested in Dahab, Sharm El Sheikh, on the nineteenth of September this year, during a trip with one of the tourist groups of the province of South Sinai on a trip organized by the tourist company in which he works. Although he was arrested in front of more than 50 people, the Ministry of Interior denied he was in its custody.

Al-Sharqawi’s family sent several complaints to the Attorney General and the Ministry of the Interior in the hope that the Interior Ministry would disclose the whereabouts of Sharqawi, but no one responded to the family’s requests. It continued to deny his presence in any of the police detention centres or any prosecution offices until he appeared on the 14th of October, after more than 25 days of his disappearance. His lawyer had received information that he was seen in the Fifth Court of Assembly – the headquarters of the investigations of the State Security Prosecution.

Muaz presented in front of State Security Prosecution on October 13, without the presence of any lawyer. The prosecution ordered his detention for 15 days in case No. 440 of 2018. The state security prosecutor charged him with joining a terrorist group. The State Security Prosecution continues to renew al-Sharqawi’s detention until the time of writing of this report.


Exceptional Judiciary… A constitution of “good intentions” in a long slumber


One of the most prominent features of the past year is the extensive expansion of investigations and trials before exceptional courts, where the State Security Prosecution has conducted investigations centrally through its headquarters in Cairo. There is, of course, no public announcement of the number of cases considered by the State Security Prosecution. However, according to the case codes, the number of cases considered by State security in 2018 has exceeded one thousand and five hundred, in addition to ongoing issues.

Cases seen before the State Security Prosecution are varied, but the nature of the specific issues that the prosecution has begun to investigate is strange. Investigations before the State Security Prosecution used to deal with issues of terrorist organizations and other cases related to crimes that harm the security of the country, currently it has been involved in prosecuting members of political parties, political movements and activists, such as activist Shadi Ghazali Harb and Abdul Moneim Abul-Fotouh, head of the Masr Alqaweyya Party and Dr. Hazem Abdel-Azim, former adviser to El Sisi’s electoral campaign.

In addition, journalists became permanent guests before the prosecution in view of their journalistic work or their activity as reporters or opinion writers. Investigations were conducted on specific cases called “media cell” cases, the most important of which were cases 441 and 977, which included a large number of media and press personnel. The number of defendants in cases related to freedom of expression through the Internet has also increased, where a number of bloggers and social media activists were investigated such as Islam Rifai (aka Khorm), blogger Wael Abbas and blogger Mohammed Oxygen.

In summary of the previous presentation, the issues of freedom of opinion and expression have become a main item on the list of charges that are being investigated before the State Security Prosecution. The prosecution charges with joining groups that were established contrary to the law or joining a terrorist group without mentioning the group’s name or nature, or sources of funding, as well as traditional accusations of publication, such as the dissemination of false news and the abuse of social media. The State Security Prosecution uses the charges of joining illegal organizations to open the door of jurisdiction to investigate these (ordinary) cases, in addition to its jurisdiction under the Prime Minister’s decision to refer new cases in some of the crimes stipulated in the various laws to emergency state security courts, which have been active throughout the Republic since April 10, 2017, and which is extended by circumventing the text of the Egyptian Constitution, which prevents the continuation of the declaration of a state of emergency. The law gives the authority to the special judiciary to investigate and prosecute crimes related to the law of protest, the law of gathering, the anti-terrorism law, the criminalization of attacks on freedom of work and the destruction of facilities, crimes related to terrorism and the violation of state security, intimidation and bullying, obstruction of public transport, all of which are included in the penal code.


“La welnabi ya Abdo” (No please don’t Abdo)


Ahmad Ali Abdel Aziz, a journalist and member of the Revolution Tomorrow Party, was arrested on November 22, 2017 for publishing an online campaign called “No by the Prophet don’t Ya Abdo” on his Facebook page. The State Security Prosecution, during the investigations conducted without the presence of a lawyer, charged him and eight others of belonging to a group established contrary to the provisions of the Constitution and the law aimed at disrupting the provisions of the Constitution and the law and preventing state institutions from performing their work and harming national unity and social peace. Upon referral to the Emergency State Security Court additional charges were made of promotion of the ideas of this group, while accusing others of financing the group.

Ahmed Abdel Aziz and other defendants are now being tried by the Emergency State Security Court in New Cairo in case No. 1 of 2018. The investigations attached to the case papers indicate that the accused are talking about the formation of the Egyptian Council for Change and its central and subcommittees. According to the state security officer this is an alliance between members of the brotherhood who fled Egypt, and a few members of the opposition who refuse the current regime (opposing elements). They aim to provoke chaos and end the rule of the military, questioning the institutions of the state and restoring the rule of the Brotherhood. The Council is headed by Hossam Shazli, a visiting professor for change management and strategic planning at Cambridge University, Switzerland. In order to achieve this, contacts have been made with organizations, embassies and members of the US Congress to create international pressure on the Egyptian government, as well as to work with human rights organizations to show human rights violations, “enforced disappearance, extrajudicial killings” and deliberate publication of false news on their facebook page, all of which are charges punishable by 5 years.

Periods of pre-trial detention extends pending cases to be investigated before the State Security Prosecution without the existence of serious investigations. Most preliminary investigations conducted by State Security Prosecution include a search in the motivations of activists and their orientation, which is closer to being a means to gather information and torture activists using a fragile legal umbrella. This is in addition to difficulties working in the foreseeable issues faced in front of the State Security Prosecution of difficulty facing the lawyers to access state security prosecution offices, where defendants are usually questioned for the first time in the absence of their lawyers, after varying periods of forced disappearance, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to photocopy the investigation papers and the accompanying reports.

The situation also extended to military judiciary, an exceptional judiciary, where creative artists have been charges because of their works, which is considered an exceptional procedures and constitutes a major development in the nature of cases heard by the military.


Poet Galal El Beheiri – Best Women on Earth poetry collection


The first defendant, Galal al-Bahiri, wrote poetry in the colloquial Egyptian dialect and called it “the best women on earth” and through it deliberately distributed false news and rumours about the Egyptian armed forces. He pointed out through his black pages that the military sold the Nile, and questioned the victories of the Egyptian army and its failure to protect the country, all of which could have disturbed public security and cause harm to public interests, he used indecent language and insulted the army… Instead of enumerating the heroic actions of martyrs in Sinai and those on alert all over Egypt, he verbally harassed them, while they are the ones who allowed him to enjoy security and safety. May his hand be stopped which transgressed the best soldiers of the earth and presented his foolish poetry.”


From the verdict by the military prosecutor in case no. 4/2018


Poet Galal al-Beheiri and one of the owners of publishing houses were sentenced to three years and a fine for each of ten thousand pounds because of one of a creative work, a poetry book, that did not even get published. He was accused of spreading false news and rumours by writing a book entitled “the best women on earth” that contains false news and data about the Egyptian armed forces, and that he insulted the Egyptian army.

Although the poetry book has not been distributed or published until the date of the trial, national security investigations have reported that the accused Galal al-Bahiri has written a book that insults the military establishment and the armed forces and claims that they cannot protect the country and that all the achievements that are announced are lies and have no basis in the truth.




  • AFTE calls on the Parliament to review the three press laws, which establish strict control and censorship by the state of the press and media work in Egypt. As well as the Cyber Crime Act, which legislates arbitrary practices against cyberspace, such as blocking websites and monitoring communications in Egypt.
  • Cancellation of the emergency state
  • Reconsideration of all exceptional trials and interrogations that took place during 2018 whether in military judiciary or state security courts.
  • Lifting the ban on all blocked sites in Egypt since May 2017
  • Cancellation of the drama committee of the supreme media council in view of its interference in creative works
  • The State Information system should end all restrictions on foreign press institutions working in Egypt and their journalists.
  • Put an end to the import of spyware and surveillance equipment and to the government’s violation of citizen privacy
[1]    Alwatan, Sisi: Constitution of Good Will Not Build a Country, 14 September 2015، 

[2]    Article 121of the constitution states the complementary laws including laws organizing presidential, parliamentary, and local elections, political parties, judiciary and its various bodies and laws organizing rights and freedoms mentioned in the constitution. It also sets some criteria for the approval of such laws.

[3]    Law No. 107 of 2013 on the organization of the right to public meetings, processions and peaceful demonstrations, published in the Official Gazette No. 47, "bis", dated 24-11-2013, to be implemented from 25-11-2013, issued by President Adly Mansour, In the absence of the Egyptian Parliament as a form of legislation necessary under the special authority granted to the President of the Republic, was approved and ratified by the current parliament in the first session of the current parliamentary session.

[4]    The Clinical Medical Research Act, known as the Clinical Trials Act, contains many articles for medical and clinical research on volunteer patients

[5]    Article 123 of the Egyptian Constitution issued in 2014 stipulates that "the President of the Republic has the right to issue or object to laws, and if the President of the Republic objects to a bill approved by the Council of Representatives, he shall reply to them within thirty days of being notified to the Council. If it is returned in the advanced time to the Council, and again approved by a two-thirds majority of its members, it shall be considered as law and issued. "

[6]    President al-Sisi sent a memorandum to the House of Representatives with a written objection to the law          



[9]Law No. 70 of 2017 on organizing the work of associations and other institutions working in the field of civil work

[10]          Law No. 180 of 2018, issuing the law regulating the press and the media, and the Supreme Council for Media Regulation.

[11]   Supreme Council for Media Regulation, Statement of the council banning the broadcast of LTC channel, 8 December 2018, Last visit: 18 December 2018,

[12]   The official website of the Higher Council for Media Regulation, the Council imposes a gag order in the case of Hospital 57357 until the end of investigations by the Ministerial Committee, 4 July 2018, the date of last visit: 18 December 2018,

[13]   Al-Waleed Ismail, Attorney General: Annuls decision by the media council to impose gag order in the case of the 57357 hospital, Al Watan portal, 7 July 2018, Last visit: 18 December 2018,   

[14]   The Supreme Council for Media Regulation, Editor of Al-Masry Al-Youm referred to an investigation and the fine of 150 thousand pounds, 1 April 2018, Last visit: 6 December 2108,

[15]   Al-Masry Al-Youm, Editorial: Positive Mobilization, March 29, 2018, Last visit date, December 6, 2018,

[16]   Masrawi, Termination of term of editor in chief of Al Masry Al Youm, 6 April 2018, last visit 6 December 2018.


[18]   Testimony to AFTE

[19]   Testimony to AFTE

[20]   Official page of the Ministry of Interior, General security sector/Cairo security directorate, 4 September, last visit 18 December 2018          

[21]President Sisi: An insult to the army and police is a great betrayal .. I will not allow anyone to insult

[22]Samir Sabri reports against Rami Issam and the play "Sulaiman Khater".

[23]The director of the play insulting the army is trying to change its position .. And Ahmed Moussa refuses to repeat the humiliating sentences on air.


[25]   Official page of Zawa cinema, Zawya short film festival, 2 February 2018, last visit 17 December 2018,       

[26]   Testimony by a member of the theater group – wanted to remain anonymous

[27]   Testimony by a member of the theater group – wanted to remain anonymous

[28]   Al Masry Al Youm, Cancellation of the concert by Hammo Bika and the chair of the union accuses him of impersonating a singer, 9 November 2018, last visit 18 December 2018

[29]   Hany Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Mahmoud Radwan, «Musical Professions» refuses to hold a ceremony for Hamo Beka Ismailia: In order to preserve the public taste, Al Masry Al Youm, on 5 December 2018, the last visit 18 December 2018,

[30]   Mada Masr, detention of writer Ibrahim al-Husseini  for 15 days for investigation into "incitement to demonstrate", on December 11, last visit date December 17, 2018,

[31]Phone interview with family member

[32]   AFTE, ruling on the dismissal of a Director-General of the Radio and Television Union for his objection to the "Tiran and Sanafir" Agreement, dated 20 June 2018, last visit date 17 December 2018,

[33]   Mohamed Eltaher, closing the windows .. Internet censorship in Egypt, 19 February 2018, last visit 16 December 2018,

[34]   Attached is a photocopy of the decision by the president of Suez university to suspend Elprince.

[35]   Mohammed Nagi (editor), More than the power of repression .. On freedom of expression in Egypt, 14 February 2018,

[36]   Telephone call with Dr. Rashwan, May 9, 2018 / Interview with Dr. Rashwan, May 15, 2018

[37]Interview with Dr. Rashwan, May 15, 2018.    

[38]Hamdi Qassem, Al-Masry Al-Youm, “the Crisis of Shaarawi at Damanhur University”: "I was wrong and I am one of his fans", May 1, 2018,


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