Association of Freedom of Thought and Expression

Profiles of imprisoned defenders within the campaign of the Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression (AFTE) to release imprisoned defenders.

These profiles were published on September 14, 2021, and will be updated on March 14, 2022.

Name: Ezzat Ghoneim

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 1118 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution – 1552 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

On March 1, 2018, a force from the National State Security of the Ministry of Interior arrested the human rights lawyer and executive director of the Egyptian Coordination for Rights and Freedoms, Ezzat Ghoneim, while returning to his home in the Haram district in Giza, but he was not resented to any investigation body until two days later. On March 3, 2018, he was presented to the Supreme State Security Prosecution for the first time, accused in Lawsuit No. 441 of 2018 Supreme State Security Prosecution, known in the media as (The Media Action).

The Supreme State Security Prosecution charged Ghoneim with accusations: joining a terrorist group, spreading false news and statements, and misusing social media. Continued to renew his pretrial detention for six months before the Giza Criminal Court’s Council Chamber ordered to release him on September 4, 2018. Ghoneim was transferred to the Haram police station for his release, and his family visited him there until September 13, before the police station denied his presence, and no news of him or any official information regarding his whereabouts was available for nearly four months. The court cancels the precautionary measures and orders his arrest and summons for his absence from the execution of the precautionary measures, then he appeared before the Criminal Court, which ordered to imprison him for 45 days pending investigation in the same Lawsuit No. 441 of 2018 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

On July 28, 2019, the Supreme State Security Prosecution summoned the 42-year-old Ghoneim for interrogation regarding a new lawsuit under No. 1118 of 2019 the Supreme State Security Prosecution, in which he is accused of the same accusation in the first lawsuit.

The Supreme State Security Prosecution released Ghoneim regarding Lawsuit No. 441 of 2018, the Supreme State Security Prosecution, and began to execute his 15-day detention pending Lawsuit No. 1118 of 2019, who is currently imprisoned in this lawsuit.

On May 28, 2021, the Supreme State Security Prosecution summoned Ghoneim for a second time for interrogation regarding a third Lawsuit No. 1552 of 2018 Supreme State Security Prosecution, in which he is accused of the same accusations in the previous two lawsuits.

As well as, Ghoneim suffers from poor detention conditions, as the Al-Qanater prison (Men) administration has prevented him from visiting since February 2020.

Later on, he was referred to trial into case No. 1552 of 2018, State Security Prosecution.

Houda Abdel Moneim Aziz

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 1552 of 2018 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On November 1, 2018, a National Security forces stormed the house of human rights lawyer and former member of the National Council for Human Rights, Houda Abdel Moneim Aziz, in Cairo Governorate, as they searched the house and seized a number of Abdel’ Moneim’s personal belongings before being taken to an unknown place, and did not tell her family about the reason for the arrest or her place. Houda was kept in enforced disappearance by the National Security for twenty days before she appeared on November 21, 2018, at the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accusing her pending investigation in Lawsuit No. 1552 of 2018 the Supreme State Security Prosecution.

The Supreme State Security Prosecution charged Abdel Moneim with accusations: joining a terrorist group established in violation of the law, receiving funding for a terrorist purpose, and inciting to strike the national economy. The Public Prosecution ordered to imprison her for fifteen days under pending investigations. The State Security Prosecution has continued to renew Abdel Moneim’s detention so far without referring it to trial or providing evidence about the charges against it.

On November 21, 2020, Abdel Moneim exceeded the two years in pretrial detention, which requires the Supreme State Security Prosecution to release her, for exceeding the maximum limit of pretrial detention in the same lawsuit, according to the Criminal Procedure Code.

Since her imprisonment, Abdel Moneim has suffered a serious deterioration in her health that requires health care that is not available in Al-Qanater Prison. On February 4, Abdel Moneim attended a hearing to renew her detention in a wheelchair, while the family said on February 5 that Abdel Moneim had suffered a heart attack and was subsequently taken to hospital. In March, the family said that the administration of Al Qanater Prison prevented access to medicine for more than three months. In May, Abdel Moneim suffered a coronary thrombosis and was subsequently transferred to the prison hospital, which the family says is not equipped to deal with the medical case of Abdel Moneim. As well as, news leaked from inside the prison that Abdel Moneim had a defect in the left kidney.

In addition to the deterioration of her health inside prison, Abdel Moneim was prevented from communicating with her lawyer or her family through visits stipulated in law since her arrest until at least the beginning of 2021.

In November 2020, the Federation of European Bar Associations, which has nearly one million members in 32 European countries, announced that Abdel Moneim and six other Egyptian lawyers had won the union’s annual award in recognition of their role in defending human rights cases. The federation has given its annual award since 2007 to lawyers who have brought honor to the legal profession by upholding the highest values of professional and personal conduct in the field of human rights, according to the federation.

Later on, she was referred to trial into case No. 1552 of 2018, State Security Prosecution.

Name: Muhammad Abu Huraira Muhammad Abd Al-Rahman

Legal Status: Arbitrary detention

Lawsuit Number: 1552 of 2018 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On November 1, 2018, a National Security forces stormed the house of human rights lawyer and spokesman of the Egyptian Coordination for Rights and Freedoms, Muhammad Abu Huraira, in Cairo Governorate. As they searched the house and seized a number of Abu Huraira’s personal belongings before taking him to an unknown place, and did not tell his family about the reason for his arrest or his place. Abu Huraira was kept in enforced disappearance by the National Security for twenty days before he appeared on November 21, 2018, at the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accusing him of pending investigation in Lawsuit No. 1552 of 2018 the Supreme State Security Prosecution.

The Supreme State Security Prosecution charged Abu Huraira with accusations: joining a terrorist group established in violation of the law, receiving funding for a terrorist purpose, and inciting to strike the national economy. The Public Prosecution ordered to imprison him for fifteen days pending investigations. The State Security Prosecution has continued to renew the detention of the 34-year-old lawyer periodically so far.

On November 21, 2020, Abu Huraira exceeded two years of pretrial detention in the same lawsuit, which requires the Supreme State Security Prosecution to release him for exceeding the maximum limit of pretrial detention in accordance with the Legal Procedures Law.

Later on, he was referred to trial into case No. 1552 of 2018, State Security Prosecution.

Name: Amr Imam

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 855 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On Wednesday, October 16, 2019, a force of National Security stormed the house of human rights lawyer and member of the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information team, Amr Imam, in Maadi district, Cairo Governorate, and arrested him after searching the house and sized some of Imam’s personal belongings. On the following day, October 17, 2019, Imam was presented to the Supreme State Security Prosecution in the Fifth Settlement, for the first time, which ordered to imprison him for fifteen days pending investigations in Lawsuit No. 488 of 2018 Supreme State Security prosecution, after accusations were brought against him, including Participation of a terrorist group to achieve its purposed, knowing its purposes, publishing and broadcasting false news and statements aimed at destabilizing security and stability in the country and misusing social media.

One day before the arrest of Imam, he had announced his intention to engage in a partial hunger strike, from October 17 to October 19, in protest at what Imam called “the lack of accountability for the crimes and violations that occur against some.” Imam wrote on his Facebook page, “I will escalate my protest, and start a full hunger strike from October 21. And announcing that I would stop taking any liquids other than water, and then escalate to a comprehensive strike and stop drinking water.” Imam considered this announcement as a “report to the Attorney General”, but before he was arrested and imprisoned in pretrial detention.

On August 26, 2020, the State Security Prosecution has summoned Imam for investigation in a new Lawsuit No. 855 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution for accusation: joining a terrorist group, and spreading false news, based on national security investigations indicating that he held meetings during the physical exercise period to attract new members and transferring information abroad through visits and detention renewal hearings, despite the Ministry of Interior’s cessation of granting prisoners physical exercise periods, in addition to stopping the transfer of accused persons to detention renewal hearings during the aforementioned period against the backdrop of the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic.

The 41-year-old Imam was kept in solitary confinement throughout the first months of his imprisonment in October 2019.

Name: Ibrahim Abdel-Moneim Metwally Hegazy

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 786 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On September 10, 2017, Cairo International Airport security force arrested the human rights lawyer and founder of the “Families of the Forcibly Disappeared” Association, Ibrahim Abdel-Moneim Metwally Hegazy, while he was at Cairo Airport on his way to the Swiss capital, Geneva, to attend a meeting, at the invitation of the United Nations Working Group on Enforced Disappearances. Two days later, On September 12, 2017, Metwally was brought before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, which ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigation in Lawsuit No. 900 of 2017 Supreme State Security Prosecution, after accusations were brought against him, most notably: establishing an illegal organization, conspiring with foreign entities to harm the security of the state, and dissemination of false data and information.

 

On September 12, 2019, Metwally completed two years of pretrial detention pending investigations in Lawsuit No. 970 of 2017, which is the maximum period of time for pretrial detention, according to the Criminal Procedure Code, which requires the release of Metwally, but he remained in illegal detention for a whole month, before the State Security Prosecution ordered to release him for the first time on October 14, 2019, and during the completion of the release procedures, Metwally’s lawyer and his family were surprised on November 5, 2019, by his presentation for the second time, before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, where he was rotated for the first time pending a second Lawsuit No. 1470 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution, ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations, after accusing him of same accusations he faced in the first lawsuit.

Ten months after Metwally was held in pretrial detention pending the second lawsuit, the first circuit of the Criminal Court ordered on August 25, 2020, to release him, but the Ministry of Interior, for the second time, refrained from executing the release order, and on September 6, 2020, ordered to recycle if for the second time pending a third Lawsuit No. 786 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution. Thus, Metwally until this writing has spent three years and nine months in pretrial detention pending three different lawsuits, without referring any of them to trial.

The 58-year-old human rights lawyer is in solitary confinement in a high-security prison 1 (Al-Aqrab), completely denied visits. Knowing that he suffers from several health problems, the most prominent of which is an enlarged prostate. As well, Metwally is the father of the young Amr Ibrahim Abdel Moneim Metwally Hegazy, who submitted his lawsuit to the UN team, and who has been under enforced disappearance since his arrest on August 7, 2013.

Name: Muhammed Al-Baqer

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 1356 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution- 588 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On September 29, 2019, while attending the interrogation hearing with political activist Alaa Abebel-Fattah at the headquarter of the Supreme State Security Prosecution in the Fifth Settlement in Cairo Governorate, the human right layer and Executive Director of Justice for Human Rights, Muhammed Al-Baqer, was surprised by the request of the Attorney General of the State Security Prosecution to investigate him, in connection with the same lawsuit entrusted with the defense of Alaa Abdel-Fattah, which carried No. 1356 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

The State Security Prosecution charged Al-Baqer with accusations: joining a terrorist group, spreading false news, and misusing social media, and ordered to imprison him in pretrial detention for 15 days pending investigations.

On August 31, 2020, the State Security Prosecution summoned Al-Baqer to investigate him in a new lawsuit, No. 855 of 2020, the Supreme State Security Prosecution, and ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations, after accusing him of joining a terrorist group and participating in a criminal agreement for the purpose of committing a terrorist crime represented in publishing and broadcasting false news, in order to spread a general scheme in the state with the aim of spreading chose in the state. The investigation of the National Security describes the only evidence for accusing Al-Baqir that “during visits and physical exercise time, he communicated with elements of the terrorist group in order to work to include many elements, and to achieve the objectives of this group represented in spreading false news aiming of destabilizing the security and stability of the country”.

The 41-year-old human rights defender is languishing in a high-security prison 2 in Tora prisons area, where, upon arrival, he was subjected to physical assault, torture, and ill-treatment. It is worth noting that about a month after Al-Baqer was held in pretrial detention, his father died due to a health crisis, specifically on October 17, 2019, and the Supreme State Security Prosecution at that time approved a request submitted by Al-Baqer’s lawyer, to enable him to go out to attend his father’s funeral.

In November 2020, the European Bar Association, which has nearly one million members, announced that El-Baqer and six other Egyptian lawyers had won its annual award in recognition of his role in defending human rights cases. The federation has given its annual award since 2007 to lawyers who have brought honor to the legal profession by upholding the highest values of professional and personal conduct in the field of human rights, according to the federation.

Name: Haitham Fawzy Muhammadin Mahmoud

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 1956 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On May 13, 2019, as soon as he entered the Al-Saff police station of the Giza Security Directorate to take precautionary measures (two hours for two days a week), police officers in uniform and national security officers in civilian clothes arrested the Labor lawyer and researcher at the Egyptian Commission for Rights and Freedoms, Haitham Fawzy Muhammadin Mahmoud, and blindfolded his eyes, and prevented him from communicating with his family or his lawyer for two days, before he appeared on May 16, 2019, before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused of Lawsuit No. 741 of 2019, State Security Prosecution.

The Public Prosecution ordered imprisoning Muhammadin for 15 days, pending investigations, against the background of his accusation of violating the conditions of probation by not attending the police station of his place of residence at the specified times, according to report No. 22/2019 that officers of the Al-Saff police station issued against Muhammadin.

On March 9, 2021, the Cairo Criminal Court ordered the release of Muhammadin pending investigations in the lawsuit, but the prosecution’s order was not executed, as Muhammadin was rotated and re-arrested by an order of the State Security Prosecution, who was presented to it one day after the order to release him on March 10, accused in pretrial detention Investigations into a new Lawsuit, No. 1956 of 2019, State Security Prosecution.

The State Security Prosecution charged Muhammadin with joining a terrorist group, spreading false news and statements, and misusing social media.

Muhammadin has been targeted several times before due to his human rights activism. Muhammadin was arrested the last time after arriving at the Al-Saff police station in his place of residence in order to spend two hours a week on two specific days inside the police station, in executing of the order of Judge Motaz Khafagy, head of Circuit 14 of the Giza Criminal Court, on October 8, 2018, in accordance with Article 201 (2) of the Criminal Procedure Code, replacing the pretrial detention of Muhammadin with precautionary measures, and set it to spend two hours for two days per week. Before being reduced by an order of the Giza Criminal Court on January 5, 2019, to one day per week.

The order of the Consultation Chamber Judge came five months after Muhammadin was under pretrial detention in Lawsuit No. 718 of 2018, Supreme State Security Prosecution. In which he faced accusations, most notably: helping a terrorist organization to achieve its goals and inciting the Maadi metro protests. As Muhammadin was arrested at dawn on May 18, 2018, against the backdrop of protests by a number of citizens against the high prices of metro tickets, inside the Maadi metro station, in which Muhammadin did not participate in the first place.

In addition to his human rights activity in providing legal support to victims of human rights violations, Muhammadine had extensive political activity, given his leadership position in the revolutionary socialist organization, which has caused him to be pursued continuously by the security and judicial authorities since the outbreak of the January 2011 revolution. The Police force arrested Muhammadine for the first time on January 25, 2011. After investigating him for a few days, they released him before the Friday of Rage, on January 28, 2011.

In September 2013 while on his way to support a workers’ strike at a cement factory, army soldiers at the Suez Checkpoint illegally arrested him and accused him of assaulting an army officer. He was released 48 hours later without charge. In January 2015, Egyptian Attorney General Hisham Barakat issued an order to confiscate the assets of 112 individuals, claiming that they were members or supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood. As Muhammedin was on this list.

On April 22, 2016, security forces arrested Muhammedin regarding what was known at the time as the land protests, which erupted in protest against the Egyptian government’s order to hand over the islands of Tiran and Sanafir to Saudi Arabia in accordance with an agreement to demarcate the maritime borders between the two countries. The Supreme State Security Prosecution accused Muhammedin of inciting protests and joining a terrorist organization. The 37-year-old was held in pretrial detention for six months in Giza Central Prison (also known as Kilo 10.5) prison, located in the Central Security Camp on the Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, before being released in October 2016.

In November 2020, the European Bar Association, which has nearly one million members in 32 European countries, announced that Muhammedin and six other Egyptian lawyers won its annual award in recognition of their role in defending human rights lawsuits. The federation has given its annual award since 2007 to lawyers who have brought honor to the legal profession by upholding the highest values of professional and personal conduct in the field of human rights, according to the federation.

Name: Muhammed Ramadan Abdul- Basset

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 910 of 2021 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On December 10, 2018, a force from the National Security raided the house of human rights lawyer Muhammed Ramadan Abdul-Basset in Alexandria Governorate and arrested him after searching the house and confiscating some of his personal belongings. One day later, on December 11, 2018, Ramadan was brought before the Prosecution of First Montaza, where he was interrogated. pending Lawsuit No. 16576 of 2018, First Montaza. The Public Prosecution ordered imprisoning Ramadan for 15 days after accusing him: joining a terrorist group and promoting its purposes using publications and spreading false news.

 

After two years of pretrial detention without referring to trial, the Alexandria Criminal Court ordered to release him on December 2, 2020, but the Ministry of Interior refrained from executing the order and detained Ramadan illegally until he appeared on December 8, 2020, for the second time before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, where he was recycled in a second Lawsuit No. 467 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution, after being accused of joining a terrorist group and spreading false news. Regarding the National Security investigation report, he allegedly published messages from his detention amid destabilizing the country. Ramadan was kept in pretrial detention through orders to renew his detention on paper without his presence from his prison, in violation of the right to a fair trial.

 

On June 13, 2021, the Cairo Criminal Court ordered to replace Ramadan’s pretrial detention with precautionary measures, but the Ministry of the Interior did not execute the order, and Ramadan’s lawyers were surprised to recycle him for the second time, as he was presented to the State Security Prosecution on the 15th of the same month, accused in connection with a new lawsuit No. 910 of 2021 Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused of the same charges in the two previous lawsuits.

 

According to a distress message sent by Ramadan in May 2021, the human rights defender suffers from knee pain to the point of being unable to move and perform his needs normally. Ramadan had previously informed the court that examined the renewal of his detention in the hearing of February 19, 2020, during his detention pending the first Lawsuit No. 16576/2018, of a complaint of pain in his chest, after which it was discovered that he had coronary artery failure when he was imprisoned in the Burj Al Arab prison in Alexandria. Finally, in May 2021, he was transferred from his cell to another poorly ventilated cell, devoid of any living necessities, and he was sleeping on the floor as punishment for the distress messages and complaints about the continuous deterioration of the health situation inside the prison.

The human rights lawyer was subjected to security and judicial prosecutions several times previously. Ramadan was detained for the first time on December 6, 2016, by a police station in Alexandria, then he was presented before the East Alexandria Prosecution, accused of inciting to commit terrorist acts and insulting state institutions. He was then released on bail the next day. While the lawsuit was referred to court under No. 5314 of 2017 with articles of Law 94 of 2015 known as the Terrorism Law, where he was sentenced in absentia on April 12, 2017, to ten years in prison and five years under house arrest, in addition to being banned from using social media for five years. Meanwhile, he was arrested for the second time on June 16, 2017, when he was accused before the Public Prosecution in Alexandria of demonstrating without a permit and blocking the road, until the court ordered his release on August 19, 2017.

In November 2020, the European Bar Association, which has nearly one million members in 32 European countries, announced that Ramadan and six other Egyptian lawyers won its annual award in recognition of their role in defending human rights cases. The federation has given its annual award since 2007 to lawyers who have brought honor to the legal profession by upholding the highest values of professional and personal conduct in the field of human rights, according to the federation.

Name: Mohamed Salah Abdel Aziz

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 855 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On the evening of November 29, 2019, a force from the National Security arrested human rights defender Mohamed Salah Abdel Aziz, from a cafe in Dokki district, Cairo governorate, with the two journalists, Hossam El-Sayyad and Solfa Magdi, who were released in May 2021.

One day later, on November 30, 2019, Salah was presented to the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused in Lawsuit No. 488 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution. The Public Prosecution ordered to detain him for 15 days pending investigations, after accusing him of accusations: joining a terrorist group, financing it, and spreading false news.

 

On July 19, 2020, after eight months of pretrial detention, the Cairo Criminal Court ordered to release of him pending investigation into the lawsuit. However, the Ministry of Interior refrained from executing the order and detained Salah illegally inside the Dar al-Salaam police station in Cairo governorate for 34 days before he was presented for the second time before the Supreme State Security Prosecution on August 23, 2020. As Salah was recycled and imprisoned in connection with a second Lawsuit No. 855 of 2020, Supreme State Security Prosecution, during the investigation, he faced the same accusations of joining a terrorist group with knowledge of its purposes and spreading false news.

 

During his illegal detention at Dar al-Salaam Police station, the 34-year-old human rights activist was subjected to severe torture and violent physical assault by a number of Dar EL Salaam Police station detectives and officers, along with a number of other political detainees in the same detention room, as a punishment for their families submitting complaints to The Ministry of Interior and the Council of Ministers to enable them to visit their relatives. The attacks on Salah resulted in severe knee and back injuries. Although he was transferred after the torture incident to the Tora Investigation Prison, Salah was not allowed to prove the incident of torture and request to be referred to the forensic doctor to document the injuries. It is not possible to transfer Salah to attend the detention renewal hearings for security reasons throughout his detention, except for one time he was transferred to attend the hearing. However, he remained detained in the “Prosecution Prison” while the renewal is done on paper periodically without him being able to see the interrogator.

 

It is noteworthy that Mohamed Salah was detained for a limited number of hours when he was arrested by human rights defender Esraa Abdel Fattah before being released without a report.

Name: Ibrahim Ezz El-Din Mahmoud Salama

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations

Lawsuit Number: 1018 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On June 1, 2019, a force from the National Security arrested a human rights activist and researcher in housing and urban planning issues at the Egyptian Commission for Rights and Freedoms, Ibrahim Ezz El-Din Mahmoud Salama, in front of a friend’s house in the Mokattam district in Cairo Governorate. After his arrest, Ezz El-Din remained under enforced disappearance for about six months, during which time his family and his lawyer submitted a report to the Attorney General, No. 8077 of 2019, and a lawsuit No. 56026 of Judicial Year 73 to the Administrative Court, which concluded the Minister of Interior in his capacity, and demanded to disclose Ezz El-Din’s place of detention. As well as telegrams to the Attorney General and letters to the National Council for Human Rights.

 

On November 26, 2019, Ezz El-Din appeared before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused in connection with Lawsuit No. 488 of 2019 Limiting Supreme State Security, after accusations were brought against him, including spreading false news and participating in a terrorist group with knowledge of its purposes, and the prosecution ordered to imprison Ezz El-Din for 15 days under pending investigations. On December 27, 2020, after 13 months of Ezz El-Din’s pretrial detention, the prosecution ordered to release him pending the lawsuit. However, the Ministry of Interior refrained from executing the order, and re-presented Ezz El-Din for the second time before the Supreme State Security Prosecution on January 2, 2021, accused of a new Lawsuit No. 1018 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

 

During the investigations in the second lawsuit, the Supreme State Security Prosecution charged Ibrahim with the same accusation in the first lawsuit of joining a terrorist group with knowledge of its purposes, and ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations in the lawsuit. The 29-year-old suffers from health problems, most notably: shortness of breath and back problems, as a result of being subjected to severe torture and violent physical abuse.

 

Ibrahim Ezz El-Din was subjected to enforced disappearance for a period of 167 days, during which time Ezz El-Din was subjected to torture and physical and psychological abuse, after he was imprisoned in a solitary cell, during which he was subjected to illegal interrogation while he was blindfolded, and in the absence of his lawyer, about his work on the right to housing file at the Egyptian Commission of rights and freedoms. Then followed the practices of starvation, threats and intimidation, as well as sleep deprivation by forcing him to raise his hands continuously, and finally threatening him with death to extract specific confessions from him.

Name: Patrick George Zaki Soliman Legal Status: He is being tried by the Mansoura Emergency State Security Court. Lawsuit Number:1766 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

An Egyptian postgraduate student at the University of Bologna- Italy, a researcher in gender issues, and a Human Rights advocate at EIPR, he was on study holiday from work when he was arrested.

On Friday, February 7, 2020, the National Security forces stopped Zaki at Cairo airport on his return home from Italy. Zaki was detained for more than 24 hours in one of the National Security premises in Cairo. He stated that he was tortured during an illegal interrogation and was prevented from reaching out to his family or his lawyer.

On February 8, he was moved to Mansoura Prosecution. Then, the Mansoura prosecution ordered his detention for 15 days, pending investigations in lawsuit No. 7245/2019 Second Administrative Mansoura.

George’s lawyers reviewed the arrest warrant issued on February 8, 2020, claiming that he had been arrested in a police ambush in the city of Mansoura based on an arrest warrant issued in 2019. The Attorney General issued a statement to state that State Security investigations had found, during the month of September, that George exploited his account on the social media website Facebook to spread false news and statements for the purpose of promoting rumors and incitement against state institutions. The Public Prosecution issued its permission to arrest George and search his home, but he was not found. The investigating body submitted to the Public Prosecution ten papers printed from George’s account on the social media website Facebook, described it as inflammatory publications against state institutions and symbols.

On March 7, one month after the arrest, the State Security prosecution initiated a new investigation with several accusations, including spreading false news, inciting to protest without permission, and inciting to commit terrorist crimes in lawsuit No. 1766/2020 Supreme State Security. Zaki is still in custody pending investigations.

In September 2021, Patrick was referred to trial at the Mansoura II State Security Misdemeanors (emergency) Court, to hold the first session on September 14. According to what the State Security Prosecution stated to his attorney, the indictment was based on an article published on “Daraj” website in July 2019, titled “Displacement, Killing and Restriction: A Week’s Diaries of Egypt’s Copts.” The article presents a week in Zaki’s life as a Coptic Egyptian reacting to current events concerning Egyptian Christians, both as a public and personal issue of interest.

Name: Ramy Kamal

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 1475 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution

 

On November 23, 2019, a force from the National Security arrested Coptic activist and director of the Maspero Organization for Development and Human Rights, Ramy Kamel, from his home in Al-Warraq district, Cairo governorate. Kamel was presented before the Supreme State Security Prosecution on the same day, where he was charged with, includes: joining and funding a terrorist group, spreading false news, and misusing social media. And ordered to imprison him for fifteen days pending investigations in Lawsuit No. 1475 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

The 39-year-old Coptic activist has been in solitary confinement throughout his detention, and he suffers from frequent and severe respiratory crises inside his prison. It is reported that two weeks before Kamel’s arrest, he received a call from a member of the National Security who asked him to come to one of the agency’s headquarters for an informal “chat”, during which Kamel wrote about being physically assaulted, intimidated and threatened.

Name: Azzouz Mahgoub

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 1118 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On March 1, 2018, a National Security force arrested layer Azzouz Mahgoub, a lawyer for the Egyptian Coordination for Rights and Freedoms, from his home in Imbaba district, Cairo governorate. Two days later, on March 3, 2018, he was presented for the first time before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, who was charged with accusations including spreading false news and joining a group founded in violation of the law. The Public Prosecution ordered imprisoning Mahgoub for 15 days pending investigations in Lawsuit No. 441 of 2018 Supreme State Security, known in the media as “Media Action”.

On September 4, 2018, the Cairo Criminal Court ordered to release Mahgoub pending the lawsuit after five months in pretrial detention. However, the Ministry of the Interior refrained from executing the order, and forcibly disappeared Mahgoub for nearly five months without any official information about his place of detention or a confession of his detention until it appeared. On March 3, 2019, before the Supreme State Security Prosecution in the Fifth Settlement, he was accused, pending investigations, in Lawsuit No. 1118 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution. The Supreme State Security Prosecution faced Mahgoub in the new lawsuit with the same accusations in the released lawsuit, pending investigations, of joining a group founded in violation of the law and spreading false news and statements.

In May 2020, the State Security Prosecution summoned Mahgoub for interrogation regarding a new lawsuit No. 1552 of 2018, Supreme State Security Prosecution, in which he was accused of the same accusations in the first and second cases. The State Security Prosecution ordered his detention for 15 days, starting after the end of his imprisonment in the lawsuit, he is currently in custody.

Later on, he was referred to trial into case No. 1552 of 2018, State Security Prosecution.

Name: Hassan Barbary

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 930 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On June 25, 2019, a National Security forces arrested the Executive Director of the Egyptian Forum of Labor Relations, Hassan Barbary, from his home in Cairo Governorate, after searching the house and confiscating some of his belongings. On the same day, Barbary was presented before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused, pending investigations, of Lawsuit No. 930 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution, known in the media as the “Alliance of Hope” lawsuit. Barbary faced accusations, including joining a group established in violation of the provisions of the law and receiving funds from abroad to use for the group’s purposes, and the Supreme State Security Prosecution ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations.

Barbary has included among 13 other defendants accused in the “Alliance of Hope” lawsuit on the lists of terrorism for a period of five years, according to the order of the Fifth Circuit- Terrorism of the Cairo Criminal Court held in the Council Chamber of the Tora Courts, against the background of their accusation in Lawsuit No. 571 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution. The order to be included on the terrorist lists entails a seizure of funds and a travel ban.

On June 25, 2021, Barbary exceeded two years in pretrial detention, which requires the Supreme State Security Prosecution to order his release for exceeding the maximum limit of pretrial detention in the same lawsuit in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure.

 

Name: Alaa Essam

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 930 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On June 28, 2019, a National Security forces raided the home of the accountant at the Egyptian Forum for Labor Relations, Alaa Essam in Suez Governorate and arrested him after searching the house and confiscating a number of Essam’s personal belongings. On the following day, June 29, 2019, Essam was presented before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused, pending investigation, in Lawsuit No, 930 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution, known in the media as the “Alliance of Hope” Lawsuit. The public Prosecution charged Essam with accusations, most notably: joining a terrorist group with knowledge of its purposes and spreading false news and statements and ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations.

Essam has included among 13 other defendants accused in the “Alliance of Hope” lawsuit on the lists of terrorism for a period of five years, according to the order of the Fifth Circuit- Terrorism of the Cairo Criminal Court held in the Council Chamber of the Tora Courts, against the background of their accusation in Lawsuit No. 571 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

During his detention in one of the headquarters of the National Security after his arrest and before his presentation to the Public Prosecution 2021, Essam was subjected to physical and verbal abuse and ill-treatment in an attempt to extract confessions from him. As well as, his father also died on May 18, 2021, and the Ministry of Interior did not allow him to go out to attend in his father’s funeral or receive condolences.

On June 25, 2021, Essam exceeded two years in pretrial detention, which requires the State Security Prosecution to order his release for exceeding the maximum limit of pretrial detention in the same lawsuit in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure.

 

Name: Ahmed Tamam

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 1056 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On June 25, 2019, a National Security Agency force raided the home of Ahmed Tamam, a lawyer and economic researcher at the Egyptian Forum for Labor Relations, in Cairo Governorate, and arrested him after searching the house and confiscating a number of Tamam’s personal belongings. On the following day, June 26, 2019, Tamam was presented before the Supreme State Security Prosecution as a defendant, pending investigations, in lawsuit No. 930 of 2019 Supreme State Security, known in the media as the “Alliance of Hope” lawsuit. The prosecution charged Tamam with accusations, most notably: joining a terrorist group with knowledge of its purposes and spreading false news. And ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations.

On October 17, 2020, the Giza Criminal Court ordered to release Tamam pending investigations into the lawsuit, but the Ministry of Interior refused to execute the order, and during the completion of the procedures for releasing Tamam, he was subjected to enforced disappearance for more than a month and a half without his family or lawyer being able to reach him and check on him, until he appeared on December 1, 2020, before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused of a second Lawsuit No. 1056 of 2020 Supreme State Security. In the second lawsuit, Tamam faced the same accusations he was accused of in the released lawsuit, which is joining a terrorist group and funding this group.

Tamam has included among 13 other defendants accused in the “Alliance of Hope” lawsuit on the lists of terrorism for a period of five years, according to the order of the Fifth Circuit- Terrorism of the Cairo Criminal Court held in the Council Chamber of the Tora Courts, against the background of their accusation in Lawsuit No. 571 of 2020 Supreme State Security Prosecution.

As well as that Tamam suffered from a heart problem before his arrest and needed special medical care.

Name: Fathy Mohamed Al-Taher

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 908 of 2021 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On May 17, 2021, a force from National Security arrested human rights lawyer Fathy Mohamed Al-Taher from one of the streets of Al-Ibrahimiyah Center in Zagazig, Sharqia Governorate. Two days later, on May 20, 2021, Al-Taher appeared before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, accused, pending investigations, in Lawsuit No. 908 of 2021 Supreme State Security. The Prosecution charged Al-Taher with accusations, including joining and financing a terrorist group by providing legal support to detainees in political lawsuits. And ordered to imprison him for 15 days pending investigations.

The investigation with the 56-year-old human rights defender included a question about the nature of his work as a lawyer, the reason for his defense of defendants in lawsuits of a political neuter and expression cases, and the extent to which this activity is connected to the Muslim Brotherhood group. As, Fathy denied all this, and admitted that he is doing his work as a free lawyer through his own office. The investigation report submitted by the National Security also stated that he had funded a terrorist group by providing legal support to political detainees, and it had proven in his personal mobile phone and a number of publications, as well as the date of his official arrest report issued on May 19, 2021.

Name: Amr Nohan Nabih Youssef

Legal Status: Pretrial detention pending investigations.

Lawsuit Number: 741 of 2019 Supreme State Security Prosecution

On June 10, 2019, while carrying out his work inside the Karmouz Police Station of the Alexandria Security Directorate, a force from the Karmouz Police Station arrested human rights lawyer Amr Nohan Nabih Youssef, and kept him until he was presented before the Supreme State Security Prosecution on June 13, 2019, accused pending investigations into Lawsuit No. 741 of 2019 Supreme State Security.

Nohan faced charges, most notably: joining a terrorist group, spreading false news and statements, and the prosecution ordered to imprison him for 15 days, pending investigations.

On June 10, Nohan completed two years in pretrial detention pending investigation in the same lawsuit, which requires the State Security Prosecution to release him for exceeding the maximum limit of pretrial detention in the same case in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure.

This is not the first time that the human rights defender has been subjected to security and judicial prosecution, as Nohan and previously spent a three-year military sentence for insulting the President of the Republic. This was because he published a sarcastic picture of the President of the Republic during giving the military salute.

 

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